Networking has permeated into both personal and professional worlds. The increasing scope and complexity of IT operations requires a class of professionals adept at monitoring, maintaining and designing a business' network to make sure everything stays up and running. And while simple maintenance is already an important enough task, there's also a need for individuals who can oversee those operations and tie them into an organization's larger business objectives. It's that niche IT management roles strive to fill.
IT Management Specialties
What does an information technology manager do?
An information technology manager reigns supreme over an organization's IT realm. These leaders may manage all of the technology decisions for smaller businesses, or, in larger organizations, they may head a team of IT professionals such as enterprise, server, database, and enterprise messaging administrators and technicians.
The position requires more than technological expertise -- IT managers need to understand their organization's business and be able to clearly communicate technical information to non-technical divisions or customers. The role also calls for knowledge of strategic planning, resource allocation and human resources policies, as they may be involved in hiring and performance reviews.
Here are some of the wide-ranging management responsibilities possible in this position:
- Analysis of technology requirements to meet organizational goals
- Acquisition, installation and maintenance of technology hardware and software
- Budgeting for IT expenditures
- Evaluation of and recommendations for new technologies
- Providing training programs and maintaining documentation
IT managers may also oversee other areas such as:
- Database implementation, administration and maintenance
- Design, development and maintenance of IT applications
- Network operations oversight
Information technology managers are expected to be aware of, mitigate and document IT security risks as well as formulate disaster recovery and business continuity plans.
In addition to leading and directing the work of other professionals in the field, information systems (IS) managers solve strategic business problems by employing information systems and technology solutions. The responsibilities of these IT pros may include managing software development projects, overseeing system implementations, leading website design efforts, and even designing network security systems.
An IS manager's team likely includes software engineers, system architects, database administrators, network security administrators, business analysts and project managers. IS managers also consult with business users, vendors, executive management and technical analysts to evaluate business needs within an organization and determine what IT projects may be necessary to fulfill those requirements.
This type of manager may also be called an information systems director, data processing manager, or MIS director (Management Information Systems), according to O*NET OnLine. Day-to-day tasks of IS managers include:
- Create and manage project plans for information systems and technology projects
- Develop roadmaps for the organization's information systems and technology objectives
- Meet with vendors to evaluate what information systems and technology tools and products should be used in the organization
- Keep executive leadership informed on status of IS projects and deliverables
- Stay current with advances in information systems and technology
An IS manager's job can be extremely high pressure, especially when projects have high visibility for executive level stakeholders.
Network systems analysts design and build computer networks based on the requirements of the client the network is being created for.
Modern computer networks have a vast number of different variables involved in their creation, all of which the network systems analyst must take into account when planning a network's design and eventual deployment.
Some common critical aspects of modern network design include:
- Combining wired and wireless networking, also known as hybrid networking.
- Using server virtualization to optimize resources and streamline hardware deployments.
- Support for Voice over IP (VoIP) and videoconferencing applications.
- Network compatibility with Line of Business (LOB) software applications.
- Disaster recovery and business continuity requirements.
- Network accessibility from multiple device types, including smartphones and tablets.
- Creating intranets for employees and extranets for clients and contractors.
- Maintaining best-of-class security throughout the entire network.
These are just some of the challenges a network systems analyst may face when approaching a new network project. Every organization has unique networking requirements, with a list of potential limitations based on geography, industry regulations and budgetary concerns. The network systems analyst fully examines each new scenario, identifies the optimal solution based on the client's requirements and limitations and manages the actual building of the network.
Network systems analysts may also be employed to examine an existing computer network to determine potential faults or hazards, and make recommendations for network hardware/software upgrades or changes.
Systems Applications and Products started in the 1970s as the brainchild of five former IBM engineers with a vision for large-scale, industrial databases. Now known by its initials, SAP, the company holds nearly a third of the global market share of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. Although SAP provides resources and staff members to help its clients use its tools, deploying and running one of its solutions often requires a combination of outside SAP consultants and in-house ERP software professionals.
As ERP software expert Jon Reed explains on his blog, commoditization of IT professionals is making combinations of skills and experience more valuable for both employers and job seekers than ever before. In fact, companies award their highest salaries to workers who can layer SAP training on top of subject matter expertise. Managers who can keep one foot in both worlds enjoy many of the IT community's most sought-after roles.
Which professions require training in SAP? Where else can SAP training help?
Analysts at Foote Partners observe increased demand for "hybrid" professionals with experience in both information technology and traditional management. When a company chooses to deploy an ERP solution, skilled project managers and software architects must interface between key stakeholders, end users, and vendors like SAP. According to a 2013 Foote Partners review of IT skills and certifications, SAP training can especially reward specialists in niches such as:
- Financial Supply Chain Management
- Plant Maintenance
- Quality Management
- Service Management
SAP training can also benefit professionals who focus on customer relationship management systems, compliance tools, and other types of databases that translate well across industries.
IT Management Degrees and Education
IT degree levels and formats
The road to becoming an IT manager begins with a college or university bachelor's degree (usually a Bachelor's of Science degree) in Information Technology Management. Alternatively, a bachelor's degree in business administration with a strong focus on IT may also serve the purpose. Many large organizations recruit and hire their junior managers directly from colleges and universities that offer these degree programs.
The IT management degree program continues up to the Master's level, and even goes on to a Ph.D, a strenuous climb that future CTOs may want to consider.
There is also the venerable Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree, although this program should be tweaked to include a significant focus on information technology management.
Another education option is the Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (BSIT or B.Sc IT) degree. With this degree, the challenge is to add a business administration component in order to better match the IT manager profile that businesses and public sector branches are looking for.
As with other industry management positions, IT manager candidates are commonly judged on the basis of both education and experience. The more senior the management position, the greater role that experience plays in the hiring process. Companies want managers who have significant real-world experience, which gives them a tendency to favor candidates who have greater experience over candidates with higher education credentials.
At the top of the scale, CTOs commonly have at least fifteen years or more of IT management experience, and have an appropriate master's degree, or even a Ph.D.
The Department of Labor reports that nearly half of IT managers have bachelor's degrees such as business management or bachelor's degrees with information technology specializations. IT manager training can also include undergraduate and postgraduate information technology management certificates and project management training.
Many businesses are beginning to require specialized graduate degrees such as the Master of Science in IT management, says the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Some employers prefer tech-focused Master of Business Administration degrees, such as an MBA program with a concentration in technology, technology management, high tech or IT management.
As for specialized technical knowledge, certain fields are considered hotter than others. ComputerWorld's Forecast 2014, published in the fall of 2013, identified top IT skills that businesses look for: programming/application development, help desk/technical support, networking, mobile applications and device management, project management, database administration, security compliance/governance, and business intelligence/analytics.
IS is an academic discipline bridging the business world with computer science. There are a seemingly endless number of applications for information science in the business world, from information management to payroll activities. Management information science training prepares future information science pros to manage all aspects of these systems, including databases, networks and security. They will typically learn how to manage projects, how to develop and debug systems and even master the ethical or social implications of these technologies.
According to The College Board, management information systems degrees typically require the following types of courses:
- Database design
- Emerging technologies
- Managing information systems
- Project management
- Networks and communications
- Systems analysis and design
IS managers typically come from a technical background in a computer-related career but have gained a leadership position by demonstrating strong business and managerial acumen. IS managers often start with at least a bachelor's in computer science, and many management positions require a graduate degree, such as an MBA with a technology concentration or a master of science in information systems. Here are some examples of advanced coursework in an MBA Information Systems program:
- Database management systems
- Information systems strategy
- Information technology project management
- Management of information systems
- Systems integration
SAP customizes versions of its Real-time platform for a wide variety of industries. SAP training familiarizes students with the underlying technology that powers all of the company's solutions. Training also enables professionals to use their career experience as a foundation for deployment, management and maintenance of ERP systems.
Who can get the most out of training in SAP technologies?
Two kinds of professionals benefit from specialized SAP training:
- Job switchers. SAP training enables employees with specialized skills to transition into higher-paying IT careers. Private and government salary surveys indicate that SAP consultants with management and leadership experience can earn tens of thousands of dollars more a year than IT workers with shallower resumes.
- Emerging IT pros. Although mastering SAP can take years, information technology professionals with server and database experience can use SAP certifications to qualify for more challenging, complex jobs. SAP consultants often organize into project teams, an ideal environment in which IT workers can grow their leadership skills.
Are there any technical certification exams one could sit for after SAP training?
SAP offers two broad sets of certifications, designed to help employers verify both training and experience:
- SAP Associate Certification
- SAP Professional Certification
On both the associate and professional-level tracks, SAP offers dozens of certifications tied to the various specialized solutions it offers across multiple industries. Career-minded SAP consultants often take years to shift from an associate certification to a professional certification in order to build the project portfolio required to earn the distinction. The process of working toward SAP Professional status often means advancing change and productivity within an organization.
IT Management Pay and Job Outlook
Data from the BLS for the job category "Computer and Information Systems Managers" indicates the job market for IT managers is expected to grow at a pace that's faster than many other occupations.
The job growth trend for IT managers will be influenced by the healthcare industry's continuing implementation of information systems, as well as the general overall growth of e-commerce, mobile and cloud computing, data warehousing, and online security efforts. The retirement numbers for Baby Boomer managers will also play a part in the demand for qualified IT managers.
Those looking to pursue this career can expect occupational demand to remain high for the foreseeable future, as information systems continue to play an increasingly significant role in business and industry. Technological advancement should continue, increasing the need for qualified professionals to manage, design and maintain information systems.
What is the salary outlook for IT managers?
The salary data for Computer and Information System Managers, the job category used by the BLS, is remarkably impressive. This is a reflection of the difficulty businesses and branches of government are having in finding well-educated and highly-experienced IT management candidates.
People looking to pursue this career can expect occupational demand to remain high for the foreseeable future, as information systems continue to play an increasingly significant role in business and industry. The BLS predicts continued job growth in this field:
|Job Title||Projected 2012-2022 Growth|
|Computer and Information Systems Managers - U.S.||15%|
What is the salary outlook for information systems managers?
Current numbers from the BLS describe median annual salary as the following:
You would be hard pressed to find a business or government that doesn't employ some sort of computer network in its day-to-day operations. The growth of wireless networking and mobile device initiatives like Bring Your Own Device (BYOD), where employees bring in their personal devices for work use, has added to the complexity and sophistication of today's modern networks. The BLS uses the category "Computer Network Architects" to capture the job functions of network systems managers:
|Job Title||Projected 2012-2022 Growth|
|Computer Network Architects - U.S.||14%|
What is the salary outlook for network systems managers?
BLS numbers place the median annual salary for the Computer Network Architect category at the following figures:
IT Management Certifications
In addition to traditional university and college education (and significant hands-on experience), an IT manager can further distinguish themselves by achieving one or more IT industry certifications. IT certification programs are offered by many of the most popular technology vendors, as well as vendor-neutral industry associations that strive to encourage the use of standardized methodologies across one or more disciplines.
One example of a relevant IT management certification program is the one operated by the Project Management Institute (PMI). PMI created what is likely the most recognized industry standard for project management, the Project Management Book of Knowledge, or PMBOK Guide for short. PMI offers a comprehensive certification program based on the PMBOK Guide for many different levels of project managers.
Earning an IT certification can help IT managers to increase their perceived value to a potential employer.
"11-3021.00 – Computer and Information Systems Managers," O*NET OnLine, 2015, https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/11-3021.00
"Avoiding SAP Skills Commoditization – Keys to Differentiating Your Skills," JonERP.com, August 14, 2010, http://www.jonerp.com/content/view/369/33/
"2013 IT Salary+Skills Pay Survey Report, SAP (US)" Foote Partners, 2013, http://www.footepartners.com/TCSAP2011.htm
"Computer and Information Systems Managers," U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014, http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/computer-and-information-systems-managers.htm
"Forecast 2014: How to wring value from your IT budget," ComputerWorld, September 23, 2013, http://www.computerworld.com/article/2484813/it-management/forecast-2014-how-to-wring-value-from-your-it-budget.html
"Majors – Management Information Systems," The College Board, BigFuture, 2015, https://bigfuture.collegeboard.org/majors/business-management-information-systems